Weather at a given place and time is its atmospheric conditions like hot, cold or windy. The weather of a place can change quickly withing a few days or even on the same day.
Climate is the kind of weather a place has over a long period of time. Unlike the weather, the climate of a place remains the same for many years.
In this chapter, Climate of India for Class 5, we will learn about different seasons and climatic regions in India.
Seasons in India
India is a very large country with different types of geographic regions. Thus, in India we experience main seasons like summer, monsoon, winter, autumn and spring. The span of these seasons varies from 2.5 to 3 months.
Spring: This season comes just before summer season. It is a pleasant season – neither too hot nor too cold. During this season trees gets new leaves.
Summer: This season begins in March and continue till June in northern part of India. The plains, the desert areas and the plateau regions are very hot during summer season. In early June, most parts of North and Central India sees very high temperatures as a result of “heat waves”. Whereas the coastal areas experience less hot and the hilly areas have pleasant summer. In summer season days are longer than nights.
Monsoon: This season begins in mid-June and continue till August. It is also called the south-west monsoon as the winds blow from this direction.
How monsoon happens? Monsoon wind gets warmed by the heat of the sun. When it blows over the sea the air picks up a lot of water vapour. This rises upwards in the atmosphere where it cool down and becomes water which falls as rain.
Why all places do not get same amount of rainfall? As the monsoon winds travel from one place to another it losses moisture. So the places that receives the early monsoon get more rain as compared to the places where the monsoon reaches later.
Autumn: This season comes before winter. It starts from the end of the monsoon i.e. September and continue till mid-November. It is a beautiful season. During this season trees in some areas shed their leaves.
Winter: This season begins in later part of November and continue till February. The hilly areas and desert areas remain very cold in winter. In winter, the hilly areas experience snow fall also along with rain. The inland areas that are far away from the sea also remain very cold. Coastal areas are less cold. During the winter season the temperature varies from 10 to 15 degree Celsius. In winter season nights are longer than days.
Climatic Regions of India
The climate of India very varied, so it is divided into five different climatic regions. These climatic regions are explained below:
- Tropical wet and dry climate: It has hot summer. Some places experiences very heavy rain fall. It has dry winter.The south-eastern coastal areas of India has a winter monsoon.
- Humid subtropical climate: It also has hot summer. This climate experience heavy monsoon rain in the eastern part of India in comparison to the western part. It has cool winter and the northern and hilly areas of India remain cooler. It covers areas such as Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and some parts of Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.
- Mountain climate: It is cooler in summer. It gets rain in the monsoon and remain very cold in winter. It covers the Himalayan region of India.
- Semi-arid climate: It has hot summer. It gets more rain than the desert region. It has cold winter. It covers areas of Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
- Desert climate: It remains very hot in summer and very cold in winter. It gets little or no rain in the monsoon. It covers some desert areas of Rajasthan.