# Roman Numerals – Class 4

## Roman Numerals – Class 4

Learn reading and writing of Roman numerals from 1 to 100.

Roman Numerals

In the Roman system there is no symbol for zero. Roman numerals for Hindu-Arabic Numeral such as 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 are given below:

Hindu-Arabic Numeral Roman Numeral
1 I
5 V
10 X
50 L
100 C
500 D
1000 M

Rules for formation of Roman-numerals is given below:

Rule 1: Repetition of a Roman numeral means addition. The roman digits I, X, C and M are repeated maximum up to three times in succession to form the numbers. V, L and D cannot be repeated.

Examples:

I = 1, II = 1 + 1 = 2, III = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3,

X = 10, XX = 10 + 10 = 20, XXX = 10 + 10 + 10 = 30,

C = 100, CC = 100 + 100 = 200, CCC = 100 + 100 + 100 = 300

M = 1000, MM = 1000 + 1000 = 2000, MMM = 1000 + 1000 + 1000 = 3000.

Rule 2: A smaller numeral written to the right of a larger numeral is always added to the larger numeral.

Examples:

VI = 5 + 1 = 6, VII = 5 + 1 + 1 = 7, VIII = 5 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 8

XI = 10 + 1 = 11, XII = 10 + 1 + 1 = 12, XIII = 10 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 13

XV = 10 + 5 = 15, XVI = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16, XVII = 10 + 5 + 1 + 1 = 17

LX = 50 + 10 = 60, LXX = 50 + 10 + 10 = 70, LXV = 50 + 10 + 5 = 65

Rule 3: A smaller numeral written to the left of a larger numeral is always subtracted from the larger numeral.

Examples:

IV = 5 – 1 = 4, IX = 10 – 1 = 9, XL = 50 – 10 = 40, XIV = 10 + (5 – 1) = 14

XL = 50 – 10 = 40, XC = 100 – 10 = 90, XIX = 10 + (10 – 1) = 19

Please Note: V, L and D are never subtracted. V is never written to the left of X.

Rule 4: When a smaller number is placed between two larger numerals, then it is always subtracted from the larger numeral immediately following it.

Examples:

XXIX = 10 + 10 + (10 – 1) = 29,

XLV = (50 – 10) + 5 = 45,

CLIX = 100 + 50 + (10 – 1) = 159.

## Roman numerals chart from 1 to 100:

Number Roman
Numeral
Calculation
0 not
defined
1 I 1
2 II 1+1
3 III 1+1+1
4 IV 5-1
5 V 5
6 VI 5+1
7 VII 5+1+1
8 VIII 5+1+1+1
9 IX 10-1
10 X 10
11 XI 10+1
12 XII 10+1+1
13 XIII 10+1+1+1
14 XIV 10-1+5
15 XV 10+5
16 XVI 10+5+1
17 XVII 10+5+1+1
18 XVIII 10+5+1+1+1
19 XIX 10-1+10
20 XX 10+10
21 XXI 10+10+1
22 XXII 10+10+1+1
23 XXIII 10+10+1+1+1
24 XXIV 10+10-1+5
25 XXV 10+10+5
26 XXVI 10+10+5+1
27 XXVII 10+10+5+1+1
28 XXVIII 10+10+5+1+1+1
29 XXIX 10+10-1+10
30 XXX 10+10+10
31 XXXI 10+10+10+1
32 XXXII 10+10+10+1+1
33 XXXIII 10+10+10+1+1+1
34 XXXIV 10+10+10-1+5
35 XXXV 10+10+10+5
36 XXXVI 10+10+10+5+1
37 XXXVII 10+10+10+5+1+1
38 XXXVIII 10+10+10+5+1+1+1
39 XXXIX 10+10+10-1+10
40 XL 50-10
41 XLI 50-10+1
42 XLII 50-10+1+1
43 XLIII 50-10+1+1+1
44 XLIV 50-10-1+5
45 XLV 50-10+5
46 XLVI 50-10+5+1
47 XLVII 50-10+5+5+1
48 XLVIII 50-10+5+1+1+1
49 XLIX 50-10-1+10
50 L 50
51 LI 50+1
52 LII 50+1+1
53 LIII 50+1+1+1
54 LIV 50-1+5
55 LV 50+5
56 LVI 50+5+1
57 LVII 50+5+1+1
58 LVIII 50+5+1+1+1
59 LIX 50-1+10
60 LX 50+10
61 LXI 50+10+1
62 LXII 50+10+1+1
63 LXIII 50+10+1+1+1
64 LXIV 50+10-1+5
65 LXV 50+10+5
66 LXVI 50+10+5+1
67 LXVII 50+10+5+1+1
68 LXVIII 50+10+5+1+1+1
69 LXIX 50+10-1+10
70 LXX 50+10+10
71 LXXI 50+10+10+1
72 LXXII 50+10+10+1+1
73 LXXIII 50+10+10+1+1+1
74 LXXIV 50+10+10-1+5
75 LXXV 50+10+10+5
76 LXXVI 50+10+10+5+1
77 LXXVII 50+10+10+5+1+1
78 LXXVIII 50+10+10+5+1+1+1
79 LXXIX 50+10+10-1+5
80 LXXX 50+10+10+10
81 LXXXI 50+10+10+10+1
82 LXXXII 50+10+10+10+1+1
83 LXXXIII 50+10+10+10+1+1+1
84 LXXXIV 50+10+10+10-1+5
85 LXXXV 50+10+10+10+5
86 LXXXVI 50+10+10+10+5+1
87 LXXXVII 50+10+10+10+5+1+1
88 LXXXVIII 50+10+10+10+5+1+1+1
89 LXXXIX 50+10+10+10-1+10
90 XC 100-10
91 XCI 100-10+1
92 XCII 100-10+1+1
93 XCIII 100-10+1+1+1
94 XCIV 100-10-1+5
95 XCV 100-10+5
96 XCVI 100-10+5+1
97 XCVII 100-10+5+1+1
98 XCVIII 100-10+5+1+1+1
99 XCIX 100-10-1+10
100 C 100

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