Class 3 Social Studies

Early Humans – Class 3

About Early Humans

Early humans lived in jungles. They did not know farming and hence spent most of their time looking for food. Early humans ate mostly plants, fruit, nuts and roots found in the jungle. They use stones to kill small animals and ate their raw flesh.

Where Early Humans Lived?

Early humans lived on large trees and natural caves to protect themselves from sun, rain, wind and wild animals.

What Early Humans Wear as Clothes?

Early humans covered themselves with large leaves of trees. They also used the skins of animals to cover their bodies.

Tools used by Early Humans

Early humans used stones with sharp edges to dig out roots and to hunt animals. They also used animal horns and bones as tools. They learnt to make spears by tying a sharp stone to a wooden stick to hunt wild animals.

Discovery of Fire

Early humans must have realised that fire can keep away wild animals and protect them from cold also. They learned that to make fire by rubbing two stones and two bamboo sticks together. They discovered that fire can keep themselves warm, create light and frighten away wild animals. They also learned that animals meat when cooked on fire made it tastier and easier to eat.

Farming

Early humans used to move from one place to another in search of food. With time they learned to do farming. They realised that they could grow their own food by planting seeds. They noticed that these planted seeds grew into trees and fruits grew on them. They learned that plants needed water and fertile soil to grow well. So they started to settle down in villages near rivers.

Taming of Animals

After settling in villages, early humans learned to tame animals like dogs, cows, bullocks, sheep, donkeys and horses. They used these animals for ploughing their farmlands. They also got milk and meat from these animals.

Transportation

Early humans used to travel long distances in search of food and carry heavy loads such as wood for making fire and making houses, and also to carry animals they killed for food. After they learned to tame animals, they used these animals for carrying loads. They also learned to make rafts by tying together straight logs. Rafts helped them to carry heavy loads by the river.

But travelling and transporting by road was still difficult and slow. They first learned to make carts that could pulled along the ground which were called sledges. They used animals to pull the sledges but it could move only on smooth grounds.

Invention of the Wheel

Early humans realised that round things could move much more easily on land than sledges. Small pieces of tree trunks which were round in shape were fitted below the carts. The cart now could move easily on uneven ground. Thus, the wheel was invented. Land travel and transportation of heavy goods became easier and faster.

A. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

  1. What did the early humans eat in the beginning?
    Early humans ate wild fruits and roots, and hunted small animals to eat their raw flesh.
  2. Where did early humans live and what kind of clothes did they wear?
    Early humans lived in natural caves or under large trees to protect themselves from the sun, wind and rain. They wore skins of animals or leaves of trees to cover themselves.
  3. How did early humans make fire?
    Early humans made fire by rubbing two stones or two bamboo sticks together.
  4. How was fire useful to the early humans?
    Early human realised that fire helped to keep away wild animals and the cold. They also discovered that fire made the flesh of animals tastier and easier to eat.
  5. Which discovery made it possible for humans to settle down in one place?
    Discovery of farming made it possible for humans to settle down in one place.

  6. Why did early humans settle near rivers?
    Early humans learned that plants needed water and fertile soil to grow well which were mostly near rivers. So they started settling near rivers.
  7. How was the first sledge made?
    People made carts that could be pulled along the ground which were called sledges. People pushed and pulled the sledges themselves. Animals were also used to pull the sledges.
  8. How did early humans get the idea of the wheel?
    Early humans must have seen round logs of wood rolling down a hill. They realised that round things could move much more easily on land. From this they get the idea of the wheel.

B. TRUE OR FALSE.

  1. Early humans first settled in villages near rivers.
  2. A sledge can move easily over uneven land.
  3. We get metal by melting wood.
  4. All wheel are round.
  1. True
  2. False
  3. False
  4. True

C. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

  1. Early humans spent most of their time looking for ________.
  2. Rubbing two stones together can make ________.
  3. Early humans needed tools to dig out and hunt __________.
  4. Early humans made ________ using sticks and sharp stones.
  1. food
  2. fire
  3. animals
  4. spear

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Mamta